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Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 Jun 1;59(7):3181-3188. doi: 10.1167/iovs.18-24207.

Genotype and Phenotype Spectrum of FRMD7-Associated Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, South Korea.
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Research Institute for Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Yangsan, South Korea.
3
Department of Neurology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Busan, South Korea.
4
Department of Ophthalmology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Busan, South Korea.
5
Department of Biological Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Ulsan National Institute of Sciences and Technology, Ulsan, South Korea.

Abstract

Purpose:

We investigate the genotype and phenotype spectrum of FRMD7-associated infantile nystagmus syndrome in Korean probands.

Methods:

A total of 37 patients with infantile nystagmus syndrome were recruited prospectively for genetic analysis. We performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based direct sequencing and haplotype analysis for FRMD7. Detailed ophthalmic examinations and eye movement recordings were compared between FRMD7 and non-FRMD7 groups.

Results:

In 13 (35%) of 37 patients, five different mutations of FRMD7 were detected: start codon mutation c.1A>G, splice site mutation c.162+6T>C, and three missense mutations (c.575A>C, c.722A>G, and c.875T>C). The latter mutation was identified in seven unrelated patients, and always was accompanied with two single nucleotide polymorphisms of exon 12 (rs6637934, rs5977623). Compared to non-FRMD7 groups, a cup-to-disc ratio was significantly decreased in FRMD7 groups (P < 0.001), and a disc-macula distance to disc diameter ratio markedly increased in the FRMD7 group (P = 0.015). Most patients in the FRMD7 group had at least two types of the nystagmus waveforms, and the most common type was unidirectional jerk nystagmus (75%), such as pure jerk and jerk with extended foveation, followed by pendular (25%), bidirectional jerk (19%), and dual jerk (6%) nystagmus. No significant differences were observed between FRMD7 and non-FRMD7 groups in terms of the nystagmus waveform, presence of periodic alternating nystagmus, and mean foveation time.

Conclusions:

We identified five FRMD7 mutations in 35% of our infantile nystagmus syndrome cohort, expanding its mutational spectrum. The missense mutation c.875T>C may be a common mutation arisen from the founder effect in Korea. Optic nerve dysplasia associated with FRMD7 mutations suggests that the abnormal development of afferent visual systems may affect neural circuitry within the oculomotor system.

PMID:
30025138
DOI:
10.1167/iovs.18-24207

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