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J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2017 Oct-Dec;5(4):177-184. doi: 10.1016/j.jmau.2017.09.002. Epub 2017 Sep 14.

Skeptical approaches concerning the effect of exposure to electromagnetic fields on brain hormones and enzyme activities.

Author information

1
Department of Anatomy and Histology, College of Medicine, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Anatomy, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey.
3
Department of Histology and Embryology, Medical School, Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey.

Abstract

This review discusses the effects of various frequencies of electromagnetic fields (EMF) on brain hormones and enzyme activity. In this context, the mechanism underlying the effects of EMF exposure on tissues generally and cellular pathway specifically has been discussed. The cell membrane plays important roles in mediating enzymatic activities as to response and reacts with extracellular environment. Alterations in the calcium signaling pathways in the cell membrane are activated in response to the effects of EMF exposure. Experimental and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that no changes occur in serum prolactin levels in humans following short-term exposure to 900 Mega Hertz (MHz) EMF emitted by mobile phones. The effects of EMF on melatonin and its metabolite, 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, in humans have also been investigated in the clinical studies to show a disturbance in metabolic activity of melatonin. In addition, although 900 MHz EMF effects on NF-κB inflammation, its effects on NF-κB are not clear. Abbreviations: ELF-EMF, extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields; EMF, electromagnetic fields; RF, Radiofrequency; ROS, reactive oxygen species; VGCCs, voltage-gated calcium channels; MAPK, mitogen-activated phosphokinase; NF-κB, nuclear factor kappa B; ERK-1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; GSH-Px, glutathione peroxidase; JNK, Jun N-terminal kinases; SOD, superoxide dismutase; MnSOD, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase; GLUT1, glucose transporter 1; GSSG-Rd, glutathione reductase MDA malondialdehyde; NO, nitric oxide; LH, luteinizing hormone; FSH, follicle-stimulating hormone.

KEYWORDS:

Circadian rhythm; Electromagnetic field; Glucose metabolism; Voltage-gated calcium channels

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