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ACS Nano. 2018 Aug 28;12(8):8706-8716. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b04689. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Stretchable, Implantable, Nanostructured Flow-Diverter System for Quantification of Intra-aneurysmal Hemodynamics.

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Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Institute for Engineering and Medicine, Center for Rehabilitation Science and Engineering , Virginia Commonwealth University , Richmond , Virginia 23284 , United States.
George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering , Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta , Georgia 30332 , United States.
Department of Industrial Engineering , University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania 15261 , United States.
Department of Bioengineering , University of Pittsburgh , Pittsburgh , Pennsylvania 15261 , United States.
School of Electrical Engineering , Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology , Daejeon , Republic of Korea 34141.
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering , Chonnam National University , Yeosu , Jeonnam 59626 , South Korea.
School of Engineering and Computer Science , Washington State University , Vancouver , Washington 98686 , United States.
Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology, Bioengineering Interdisciplinary Program, Petit Institute for Bioengineering & Bioscience, and Center for Flexible Electronics , Georgia Institute of Technology , Atlanta , Georgia 30332 , United States.


Random weakening of an intracranial blood vessel results in abnormal blood flow into an aneurysmal sac. Recent advancements show that an implantable flow diverter, integrated with a medical stent, enables a highly effective treatment of cerebral aneurysms by guiding blood flow into the normal vessel path. None of such treatment systems, however, offers post-treatment monitoring to assess the progress of sac occlusion. Therefore, physicians rely heavily on either angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods require a dedicated facility with sophisticated equipment settings and time-consuming, cumbersome procedures. In this paper, we introduce an implantable, stretchable, nanostructured flow-sensor system for quantification of intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics. The open-mesh membrane device is capable of effective implantation in complex neurovascular vessels with extreme stretchability (500% radial stretching) and bendability (180° with 0.75 mm radius of curvature) for monitoring of the treatment progress. A collection of quantitative mechanics, fluid dynamics, and experimental studies establish the fundamental aspects of design criteria for a highly compliant, implantable device. Hemocompatibility study using fresh ovine blood captures the device feasibility for long-term insertion in a blood vessel, showing less platelet deposition compared to that in existing implantable materials. In vitro demonstrations of three types of flow sensors show quantification of intra-aneurysmal blood flow in a pig aorta and the capability of observation of aneurysm treatment with a great sensitivity (detection limit as small as 0.032 m/s). Overall, this work describes a mechanically soft flow-diverter system that offers an effective treatment of aneurysms with an active monitoring of intra-aneurysmal hemodynamics.


bioresorbable; flow diverter; hemocompatible; implantable; intracranial aneurysm; nanostructured sensor


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