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J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2018 Aug;32(8):e22171. doi: 10.1002/jbt.22171. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Sodium Acetate, Sodium Acid Pyrophosphate, and Citric Acid Impacts on Isolated Peripheral Lymphocyte Viability, Proliferation, and DNA Damage.

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Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
Immunology Unit, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (ARRI), Giza, Egypt.
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.


The present study examined the impacts of sodium acetate (SA), sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), and citric acid (CA) on the viability, proliferation, and DNA damage of isolated lymphocytes in vitro. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assays were adopted to evaluate cell viability, while comet assay was employed to assess the genotoxic effects. The cells were incubated with different levels of SA (50, 100, and 200 mM), SAPP (25, 50, and 100 mM/L), or CA (100, 200, and 300 μg/mL). The lymphocytes treated with the tested food additives showed concentration-dependent decreases in both cell viability and proliferation. A concentration-dependent increase in LDH release was also observed. The comet assay results indicated that SA, SAPP, and CA increased DNA damage percentage, tail DNA percentage, tail length, and tail moment in a concentration-dependent manner. The current results showed that SA, SAPP, and CA are cytotoxic and genotoxic to isolated lymphocytes in vitro.


citric acid; food additives; genotoxicity; sodium acetate; sodium acid pyrophosphate

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