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Vaccine. 2018 Aug 9;36(33):4993-5001. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.017. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

The 2015-2016 influenza epidemic in Beijing, China: Unlike elsewhere, circulation of influenza A(H3N2) with moderate vaccine effectiveness.

Author information

1
Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing, China; Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing, China.
2
Public Health Service South Limburg, Department of Sexual Health, Infectious Diseases, and Environmental Health, Sittard-Geleen, The Netherlands.
3
Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.
4
Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
5
Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing, China; Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing, China; School of Public Health, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China. Electronic address: yangpengcdc@163.com.
6
Beijing Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing, China; Beijing Research Center for Preventive Medicine, Beijing, China. Electronic address: bjcdcxm@126.com.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

While the 2015-2016 influenza season in the northern hemisphere was dominated by A(H1N1)pdm09 and B/Victoria viruses, in Beijing, China, there was also significant circulation of influenza A(H3N2) virus. In this report we estimate vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza A(H3N2) and other circulating viruses, and describe further characteristics of the 2015-2016 influenza season in Beijing.

METHODS:

We estimated VE of the 2015-2016 trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) against laboratory-confirmed influenza virus infection using the test-negative study design. The effect of prior vaccination on current VE was also examined.

RESULTS:

Of 11,000 eligible patients included in the study, 2969 (27.0%) were influenza positive. Vaccination coverage was 4.2% in both cases and controls. Adjusted VE against all influenza was 8% (95% CI: -16% to 27%): 18% (95% CI: -38% to 52%) for influenza A(H1N1)pdm09, 54% (95% CI: 16% to 74%) for influenza A(H3N2), and -8% (95% CI: -40% to 18%) for influenza B/Victoria. The overall VE for receipt of 2015-2016 vaccination only, 2014-2015 vaccination only, and vaccinations in both seasons was -15% (95% CI: -63% to 19%), -25% (95% CI: -78% to 13%), and 18% (95% CI: -11% to 40%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

Overall the 2015-2016 TIV was protective against influenza infection in Beijing, with higher VE against the A(H3N2) viruses compared to A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses.

KEYWORDS:

China; Influenza; Test-negative design; Vaccine effectiveness

PMID:
30017144
DOI:
10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.07.017
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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