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Curr Opin Psychol. 2019 Apr;26:76-79. doi: 10.1016/j.copsyc.2018.06.003. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Scheduling styles.

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HEC Paris, 1 rue de la Libération, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France. Electronic address:
Yeshiva University, 215 Lexington Ave., Suite 421, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:


To schedule activities and transition from one activity to the next, humans can rely on the external clock (clock-time style) or on their internal sense (event-time style). This article discusses how relying on an external time cue versus an internal time cue can markedly shape the way people perceive the social world, beyond its mere purpose of organizing activities. First, research shows that individuals' reliance on clock-time or event-time is not a mere cultural artifact, but also constitutes a way to self-regulate. Second, each scheduling style is akin to different lenses through which people consider the world: each deeply and differently influences people's sensation of control and their ability to savor positive emotions. Downstream implications for the domains of creativity, consumer decision-making and management are discussed.

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