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West J Emerg Med. 2018 Jul;19(4):756-761. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2018.5.37521. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Teaching Methods Utilized During Medical Resuscitations in an Academic Emergency Department.

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University of California, San Francisco-Fresno, Department of Emergency Medicine, Fresno, California.



One important skill that an emergency medicine trainee must learn is the resuscitation of the critically ill patient. There is research describing clinical teaching strategies used in the emergency department (ED), but less is known about specific methods employed during actual medical resuscitations. Our objective was to identify and describe the teaching methods used during medical resuscitations.


This was a prospective study involving review of 22 videotaped, medical resuscitations. Two teams of investigators first each reviewed and scored the amount and types of teaching observed for the same two videos. Each team then watched and scored 10 different videos. We calculated a Cohen's kappa statistic for the first two videos. For the remaining 20 videos, we determined means and standard deviations, and we calculated independent two-tailed t-tests to compare means between different demographic and clinical situations.


The Cohen's kappa statistic was K=0.89 with regard to number of teaching events and K=0.82 for types of teaching observed. Of the resuscitations reviewed, 12 were in coding patients. We identified 148 episodes of teaching, for an average of 7.4 per resuscitation. The amount of teaching did not vary with regard to whether the patient was coding or not (p=0.97), nor based on whether the primary learner was a junior or senior resident (p=0.59). Questioning, affirmatives and advice-giving were the most frequently observed teaching methods.


Teachers use concise teaching methods to instruct residents who lead medical resuscitations. Further research should focus on the effectiveness of these identified strategies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of Interest: By the WestJEM article submission agreement, all authors are required to disclose all affiliations, funding sources and financial or management relationships that could be perceived as potential sources of bias. No author has professional or financial relationships with any companies that are relevant to this study. There are no conflicts of interest or sources of funding to declare.

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