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Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jul 16;19(7). pii: E2068. doi: 10.3390/ijms19072068.

The Natural Product 6-Gingerol Inhibits Inflammation-Associated Osteoclast Differentiation via Reduction of Prostaglandin E₂ Levels.

Author information

1
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea. hyhhwang@kiom.re.kr.
2
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea. xotn91@kiom.re.kr.
3
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea. younme1112@nate.com.
4
Herbal Medicine Research Division, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea. hyunil74@kiom.re.kr.

Abstract

The natural product 6-gingerol, a major bioactive component of the rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale), is known to have several beneficial effects on health, including anti-inflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of 6-gingerol on osteoclast differentiation associated with inflammation. 6-Gingerol inhibited osteoclast differentiation in co-cultures of osteoblasts and osteoclast precursor cells in response to the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-1. However, it did not affect osteoclast precursor differentiation into osteoclasts induced by the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), a key cytokine causing osteoclast differentiation. 6-Gingerol inhibited IL-1-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts, and the addition of RANKL to the co-cultures overcame 6-gingerol-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. It also suppressed IL-1-induced prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production in osteoblasts, and the addition of exogenous PGE₂ reversed 6-gingerol-mediated inhibition of IL-induced RANKL expression in osteoblasts and osteoclast differentiation in the co-cultures. We found that 6-gingerol reduced PGE₂ levels by suppressing enzymatic activities of cyclooxygenase and PGE synthase, which cooperatively catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid to PGE₂. Our findings demonstrate that 6-gingerol inhibits IL-1-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppression of RANKL expression in osteoblasts though reduction of PGE₂ levels, suggesting its potential use in treating inflammatory bone destruction associated with excessive PGE₂ production.

KEYWORDS:

6-gingerol; inflammation; interleukin-1; osteoclast; prostaglandin E2

PMID:
30013004
PMCID:
PMC6073224
DOI:
10.3390/ijms19072068
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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