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Acta Biomater. 2018 Sep 1;77:240-254. doi: 10.1016/j.actbio.2018.07.025. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Rational design of multimodal therapeutic nanosystems for effective inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; Institute for NanoBiotechnology (INBT), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.
2
Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States.
3
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China.
4
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; Institute for NanoBiotechnology (INBT), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States.
5
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; Institute for NanoBiotechnology (INBT), Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, United States; Department of Oncology and Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, United States. Electronic address: hcui6@jhu.edu.
6
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, PR China. Electronic address: srguo@sjtu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Simultaneous inhibition of both tumor growth and metastasis is the key to treating metastatic cancer, yet the development of effective drug delivery systems represents a great challenge since multimodal therapeutic agents must be rationally combined to overcome the biological mechanisms underpinning tumor cell proliferation and invasion. In this context, we report a hybrid therapeutic nanoscale platform that incorporates an anti-proliferative drug, doxorubicin (DOX), and an anti-NF-κB agent, p65-shRNA, for effective treatment of metastatic breast cancer. In our design, we first conjugated DOX via an acid-labile linker onto gold nanorods that were pre-modified with the tumor targeting peptide RGD and a positively charged, disulfide cross-linked short polyethylenimines (DSPEI), and then incorporated shRNA through electrostatic complexation with DSPEI. We show that this "all in one" nanotherapeutic system (RDG/shRNA@DOX) can be effectively internalized through RGD-mediated endocytosis, followed by stimuli-responsive intracellular co-release of DOX and shRNA. Our in vitro experiments suggest that this multimodal system can significantly inhibit cell proliferation, angiogenesis, and invasion of metastatic MDA-MB-435 cancer cells. Systemic administration of RDG/shRNA@DOX into a metastatic mouse model led to enhanced tumor accumulation, and, most importantly, significant inhibition of in situ tumor growth and almost complete suppression of tumor metastasis. We believe this hybrid multimodal nanotherapeutic system provides important insight into the rational design of therapeutic systems for the effective treatment of metastatic carcinoma.

STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:

The key to successfully treat metastatic cancer is the simultaneous inhibition of both tumor growth and metastasis. This represents a great challenge for the design of drug delivery systems since multimodal therapeutic agents must be rationally combined to overcome the respective biological mechanisms underpinning tumor cell proliferation and invasion. Toward this end, we developed a hybrid nanomedicine platform that incorporates an anti-proliferative drug, doxorubicin (DOX), and an anti-NF-κB agent, p65-shRNA, for effective treatment of metastatic breast cancer. We showed that this multimodal system (RDG/shRNA@DOX) enhanced tumor accumulation, led to prolonged circulation, and most importantly, significant inhibition of in situ tumor growth and almost complete suppression of tumor metastasis. We believe this hybrid multimodal nanotherapeutic system provides significant insight into the rational design of therapeutic systems for the effective treatment of metastatic cancer.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer metastasis; Combined therapy; Gold nanorods; Stimuli-responsive; Tumor growth

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