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Food Res Int. 2014 Oct;64:150-156. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2014.05.078. Epub 2014 Jun 17.

Infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves from artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus) are effective scavengers of physiologically relevant ROS and RNS.

Author information

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad de la República (UdelaR), P.O. Box 1157, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay.
2
Institute of Biotechnology, University of Caxias do Sul (UCS), 95070-560 Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil.
3
Department of Natural Products and Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad de la República (UdelaR), P.O. Box 1157, 11800 Montevideo, Uruguay.
4
REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUP), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal.
5
REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUP), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: rcchiste@ff.up.pt.
6
REQUIMTE, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUP), University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal. Electronic address: marisafreitas@ff.up.pt.

Abstract

The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. subsp. cardunculus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and Americas for its edible young flower heads and as an interesting source of bioactive compounds. The present study was undertaken to evaluate scavenging capacity against the most physiologically relevant reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) of three different extracts from artichoke leaves (infusion, decoction and hydroalcoholic) using different solvents, commonly accepted for human consumption (water and a mixture of ethanol/water). Additionally, the phenolic compounds in each extract were identified and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array and mass spectrometer detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS/MS). Chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic compound identified in all extracts, followed by 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid (cynarin), luteolin-7-rutinoside and the infusion extract presented the highest phenolic content (108mg/g extract, dry basis). In general, the extracts of artichoke leaves presented a remarkable capacity to scavenge ROS and RNS with IC50 values in a low μg/mL range (3.4-43μg/mL). These findings suggest that artichoke could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and has an undeniable nutraceutical value.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidant capacity; Cynara cardunculus; LC–MS; Phenolic compounds; Reactive nitrogen species; Reactive oxygen species

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