Format

Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2018 Jul 16;13(7):e0200855. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0200855. eCollection 2018.

Circulating hypoxia marker carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and patients with cirrhosis.

Author information

1
Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Endocrinology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.
2
Georg-Speyer-Haus, Institute for Tumor Biology and Experimental Therapy, Frankfurt, Germany.
3
Department of General and Visceral Surgery, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Expression of carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9), an enzyme expressed in response to hypoxia, acidosis and oncogenic alterations, is reported to be a prognostic factor in HCC patients. Here we evaluated serum CA9 levels in HCC and cirrhosis patients.

METHODS:

HCC and cirrhosis patients were prospectively recruited and CA9 levels were determined. CA9 levels were compared to stages of cirrhosis and HCC stages. The association of the CA9 levels and overall survival (OS) was assessed. Furthermore, immunohistochemical CA9 expression in HCC and cirrhosis was evaluated.

RESULTS:

215 patients with HCC were included. The median serum CA9 concentration in patients with HCC was 370 pg/ml and significantly higher than in a healthy cohort. Patients with advanced cancer stages (BCLC and ALBI score) had hid significant higher levels of CA9 in the serum. HCC patients with high serum CA9 concentrations (>400 pg/ml) had an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) 1.690, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.017-2.809, P = 0.043). Serum CA9 concentration in cirrhotic patients did not differ significantly from HCC patients. Higher CA9 levels in cirrhotic patients correlated with portal hypertension and esophageal varices. Patients with ethanol induced cirrhosis had the highest CA9 levels in both cohorts. Levels of CA9 did not correlate with immunohistochemical expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

We conclude that a high CA9 level is a possible prognostic indicator for a poor outcome in HCC patients. The high CA9 levels are probably mainly associated with portal hypertension. Ductular reactions might be a possible source of serum CA9.

PMID:
30011326
PMCID:
PMC6047828
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0200855
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center