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ACS Nano. 2018 Aug 28;12(8):7445-7481. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.8b03513. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Supramolecular Assemblies on Surfaces: Nanopatterning, Functionality, and Reactivity.

Author information

1
California NanoSystems Institute , University of California, Los Angeles , Los Angeles , California 90095 , United States.
2
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry , University of California, Los Angeles , Los Angeles , California 90095 , United States.
3
INRS Centre for Energy, Materials and Telecommunications , 1650 Boul. Lionel Boulet , Varennes , Quebec J3X 1S2 , Canada.
4
Institute for Fundamental and Frontier Science , University of Electronic Science and Technology of China , Chengdu 610054 , P.R. China.
5
Department of Physics , National University of Singapore , 117542 Singapore.
6
Department of Chemistry , McGill University , Montreal H3A 0B8 , Canada.
7
Department of Chemistry , KU Leuven , Celestijnenlaan 200F , Leuven 3001 , Belgium.
8
Department of Chemistry , Indiana University , Bloomington , Indiana 47405 , United States.
9
National Center for Nanoscience and Technology , Beijing 100190 , China.
10
School of Physics & Astronomy , University of Nottingham , Nottingham NG7 2RD , United Kingdom.
11
Department of Materials Science and Engineering , University of California, Los Angeles , Los Angeles , California 90095 , United States.

Abstract

Understanding how molecules interact to form large-scale hierarchical structures on surfaces holds promise for building designer nanoscale constructs with defined chemical and physical properties. Here, we describe early advances in this field and highlight upcoming opportunities and challenges. Both direct intermolecular interactions and those that are mediated by coordinated metal centers or substrates are discussed. These interactions can be additive, but they can also interfere with each other, leading to new assemblies in which electrical potentials vary at distances much larger than those of typical chemical interactions. Earlier spectroscopic and surface measurements have provided partial information on such interfacial effects. In the interim, scanning probe microscopies have assumed defining roles in the field of molecular organization on surfaces, delivering deeper understanding of interactions, structures, and local potentials. Self-assembly is a key strategy to form extended structures on surfaces, advancing nanolithography into the chemical dimension and providing simultaneous control at multiple scales. In parallel, the emergence of graphene and the resulting impetus to explore 2D materials have broadened the field, as surface-confined reactions of molecular building blocks provide access to such materials as 2D polymers and graphene nanoribbons. In this Review, we describe recent advances and point out promising directions that will lead to even greater and more robust capabilities to exploit designer surfaces.

KEYWORDS:

graphene nanoribbons; molecular electronics; on-surface polymerization; scanning tunneling microscopy; self-assembled molecular networks; supramolecular assemblies; two-dimensional polymers

PMID:
30010321
DOI:
10.1021/acsnano.8b03513

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