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Clin Nurs Res. 2018 Jul 1:1054773818788511. doi: 10.1177/1054773818788511. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of a Virtual Reality-Based Exercise Program on Fatigue in Hospitalized Taiwanese End-Stage Renal Disease Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis.

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1 Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
2 Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Taoyuan, Taiwan.
3 Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of a virtual reality-based exercise program on fatigue in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who receive hemodialysis (HD). In this quasi-experimental study design, an experimental group ( n = 32) received virtual reality training that promoted exercise, and a control group ( n = 32) received routine care (advice on physical activities). Fatigue and physiologic parameters were assessed pretest (before intervention) as well as posttest (4 weeks after the onset of intervention). Our results showed that patients in the experimental group had significantly lower levels of overall fatigue, reduction in vigor and motivation, distress and loss of control in mood, and higher hemoglobin levels compared with the control group. ANCOVA revealed that there were no differences in overall fatigue and different domains of fatigue. Exercise only increased the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine levels significantly in the intervention group.


end-stage renal disease; fatigue; hemodialysis; virtual reality-based program


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