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Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Jul 11;24(1):109-119.e6. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.06.001. Epub 2018 Jun 28.

Bacterial Adaptation to the Host's Diet Is a Key Evolutionary Force Shaping Drosophila-Lactobacillus Symbiosis.

Author information

1
Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5242, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Electronic address: maria-elena.martino@ens-lyon.fr.
2
Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5242, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France.
3
North Carolina State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA.
4
North Carolina State University, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA; Helmholtz Institute for RNA-based Infection Research, Josef-Schneider-Straße 2/D15, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.
5
Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Unité Mixte de Recherche 5242, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07, France. Electronic address: francois.leulier@ens-lyon.fr.

Abstract

Animal-microbe facultative symbioses play a fundamental role in ecosystem and organismal health. Yet, due to the flexible nature of their association, the selection pressures that act on animals and their facultative symbionts remain elusive. Here we apply experimental evolution to Drosophila melanogaster associated with its growth-promoting symbiont Lactobacillus plantarum, representing a well-established model of facultative symbiosis. We find that the diet of the host, rather than the host itself, is a predominant driving force in the evolution of this symbiosis. Furthermore, we identify a mechanism resulting from the bacterium's adaptation to the diet, which confers growth benefits to the colonized host. Our study reveals that bacterial adaptation to the host's diet may be the foremost step in determining the evolutionary course of a facultative animal-microbe symbiosis.

KEYWORDS:

Drosophila; experimental evolution; lactobacilli; microbiota; symbiosis

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