Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Jul 14;7(14). pii: e008178. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.008178.

Electronic Cigarette Use Prevalence, Associated Factors, and Pattern by Cigarette Smoking Status in the United States From NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2013-2014.

Author information

American Heart Association Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center, Miami, FL
Center for Prevention and Wellness Research, Baptist Health South Florida Medical Group, Coral Gables, FL.
Department of Epidemiology, Robert Stempel College of Public Health Florida International University, Miami, FL.
American Heart Association Tobacco Regulation and Addiction Center, Miami, FL.
Ciccarone Center for the Prevention of Heart Disease, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Louisville, KY.
Diabetes and Obesity Center, University of Louisville, KY.
Syrian Center for Tobacco Studies, Aleppo, Syria.
Department of Otolaryngology & Communicative Sciences, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS.
Department of Global Health, Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.
Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Department of Medicine, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, FL.
High Risk Cardiovascular Disease Clinic, Baptist Health South Florida, Miami, FL.



To examine the prevalence and patterns of recent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a nationally representative sample of US adults and adolescents.


Using tobacco information from NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) 2013-2014, 5423 adults and 895 adolescents (aged 13-17 years) were included in this analysis. Demographic, tobacco use, and drug use information were self-reported. Recent e-cigarette use (within the previous 5 days) was stratified by smoking status. Of 125 e-cigarette users, 116 participants were aged ≥18 years, corresponding to 2.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.1) and 1.21% (95% CI, 0.3-2.1) prevalence of e-cigarette use among US adults and adolescents, respectively. E-cigarette adult users were current smokers (68.1%), former smokers (23.7%), and never smokers (8.2%). The highest prevalence of e-cigarette use was among current smokers (8.2%; 95% CI, 6.3-10.1), followed by former smokers (2.7%; 95% CI, 1.4-4.1), and then never smokers (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6). After adjusting for age, sex, and ethnicity, e-cigarette users had higher odds of being exposed to secondhand smoke (odds ratio: 6.3; 95% CI, 3.6-11.1) and drinking alcohol (odds ratio: 4.2; 95% CI, 1.8-10.0) and lower odds of having at least a college education or a higher income, compared with tobacco nonusers.


Between 2013 and 2014, e-cigarette use in the United States was more common among younger people, those with low socioeconomic status, and current and former smokers. These findings will help inform future research as well as public policy and regulatory actions.


National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; adult; e‐cigarette; tobacco

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center