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Ann Neurol. 1985 Nov;18(5):567-73.

Japanese encephalitis: immunocytochemical studies of viral antigen and inflammatory cells in fatal cases.


The distribution of virus and the composition of the mononuclear inflammatory response were studied in the brains of 7 children who died with Japanese encephalitis. Viral antigen was localized to neurons, with greatest involvement in the thalamus and brainstem. Quantitation of perivascular inflammatory responses showed a preponderance of T cells, but only 7 to 30% of these cells were T suppressor/cytotoxic cells. Inflammatory cells invading the parenchyma were predominantly macrophages with small numbers of T cells. B cells remained localized to perivascular cuffs. Viral antigen was progressively cleared in patients with survival of 6 days or more.

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