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Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 12;8(1):10561. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28635-z.

Authentication of Garcinia fruits and food supplements using DNA barcoding and NMR spectroscopy.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway.
2
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Royal Enclave, Srirampura, Jakkur Post, Bangalore, 560064, India.
3
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1172, 0318, Oslo, Norway.
4
Department of Crop Physiology, School of Ecology and Conservation, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gandhi Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Bangalore, 560065, India.
5
Department of Forest Biology, College of Forestry, University of Agricultural Sciences, Sirsi, 581401, India.
6
Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Royal Enclave, Srirampura, Jakkur Post, Bangalore, 560064, India. gravikanth@atree.org.
7
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1068, Blindern, 0316, Oslo, Norway. helle.wangensteen@farmasi.uio.no.

Abstract

Garcinia L. (Clusiaceae) fruits are a rich source of (-)-hydroxycitric acid, and this has gained considerable attention as an anti-obesity agent and a popular weight loss food supplement. In this study, we assessed adulteration of morphologically similar samples of Garcinia using DNA barcoding, and used NMR to quantify the content of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and (-)-hydroxycitric acid lactone in raw herbal drugs and Garcinia food supplements. DNA barcoding revealed that mostly G. gummi-gutta (previously known as G. cambogia) and G. indica were traded in Indian herbal markets, and there was no adulteration. The content of (-)-hydroxycitric acid and (-)-hydroxycitric acid lactone in the two species varied from 1.7% to 16.3%, and 3.5% to 20.7% respectively. Analysis of ten Garcinia food supplements revealed a large variation in the content of (-)-hydroxycitric acid, from 29 mg (4.6%) to 289 mg (50.6%) content per capsule or tablet. Only one product contained quantifiable amounts of (-)-hydroxycitric acid lactone. Furthermore the study demonstrates that DNA barcoding and NMR could be effectively used as a regulatory tool to authenticate Garcinia fruit rinds and food supplements.

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