Send to

Choose Destination
J Periodontol. 2019 Jan;90(1):35-43. doi: 10.1002/JPER.18-0034. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

Labially impacted maxillary canines after the closed eruption technique and orthodontic traction: A split-mouth comparison of periodontal recession.

Author information

Private practice.
Department of Orthodontics, The Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, Yonsei University College of Dentistry, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Mechanical engineering, College of Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Periodontology, Research Institute for Periodontal Regeneration, Yonsei University College of Dentistry.
Department of Orthodontics, Gangnam Severance Dental Hospital, The Institute of Craniofacial Deformity, Yonsei University College of Dentistry.



Labially impacted maxillary canines may lack periodontal tissue after orthodontic traction. This study evaluated the periodontal status of labially impacted maxillary canines after the closed eruption technique followed by orthodontic traction and investigated pretreatment variables affecting periodontal changes.


Patients with one labially impacted maxillary canine (impaction group) and one contralateral normal canine (control group) were selected retrospectively. Maxillary canine pretreatment variables (angle, depth, sector, and Nolla stage) were determined from initial panoramic radiography. Periodontal outcomes including sulcus probing depth, bone probing depth, keratinized gingiva width (KGW), attached gingiva width (AGW), clinical crown length (CCL), cemento-enamel junction to alveolar crest (CEJ-AC) distance, root length, and bone support were measured from radiographic and clinical examinations after treatment and compared between the two groups. Pretreatment variables affecting the periodontal outcomes were determined using linear regression analyses.


Fifty-four patients (21 males and 33 females; mean age, 12.85 years) were enrolled. The KGW, AGW, and root length were shorter; the CCL and CEJ-AC distance were longer; and the bone support on the interproximal sides was less in the impaction group than in the control group (P < 0.05). The root length was shorter with higher Nolla stages and the distal alveolar crest was lower with deep and mesially angulated impaction (P < 0.01).


After the closed eruption technique, impacted canines exhibited slight but clinically insignificant periodontal recession compared with the contralateral normal tooth. The root developmental stage and pretreatment depth and angle may influence periodontal recession.


cuspid; periodontal index; tooth


Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center