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Adv Enzyme Regul. 1985;23:365-76.

Regulation of 2-5 A phosphodiesterase activity by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation: mechanism and biological role.


The results of the present study permit the explanation of one of the mechanisms of the interconnection between the regulatory systems of cAMP and 2-5A. cAMP-dependent regulation of 2'-PDE was found to involve phosphorylation of the specific protein inhibitor. Originally, a similar way of regulation of the enzyme activity was discovered for protein phosphatase I. This enzyme has a specific protein inhibitor type 1, which is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and is activated by phosphorylation (18). It is interesting that the molecular weights of 2'-PDE protein inhibitor and of the inhibitor type 1 of protein phosphatase I are essentially the same. There is also a certain similarity between the above described mechanism and phosphorylation of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase type 2. The regulatory subunit can also act as a protein inhibitor of the enzyme and change its properties as a result of phosphorylation (19). The results obtained permit as well a more detailed explanation for cAMP-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Evidently, cAMP elevation causes activation of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation which, in turn, leads to the induction of 2-5A synthetase and inhibition of 2'-PDE. As a result of variations in the activities of these enzymes, the level of 2-5A rises. The latter brings about the changes characteristic of the resting state. They involve activation of RNase L and the succeeding acceleration of RNA hydrolysis, inhibition of protein synthesis and cell proliferation. The resting state is characterized by a rapid turnover of macromolecules due to their intensive degradation (20). The above described scheme suggested that the rapid turnover of RNA during inhibition of cell proliferation can be partially accounted for by activation of 2-5A-dependent RNase L. Thus, it can be thought that at least one of the mechanisms of the antiproliferative effect of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of proteins involves cAMP-dependent elevation of intracellular 2-5A. Evidently, a number of properties of the resting cells are determined by the elevated content of 2-5A. Finally, it should be noted that the interconnection between the systems of cAMP and 2-5A is a multiple process. We have earlier demonstrated (12) that 2-5A activates cAMP phosphodiesterase in NIH 3T3 cell homogenates. These data suggest that the mutual regulation of cAMP and 2-5A levels involves the negative feedback mechanism (Fig. 8).

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