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Iran J Psychiatry. 2018 Apr;13(2):111-118.

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Adults Using Methamphetamine: Does It Affect Comorbidity, Quality of Life, and Global Functioning?

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Psychiatry Faculty, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Psychiatry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Research Center for Cognitive and Behavioral Sciences, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Psychiatry and Psychology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.


Objective: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in adulthood, and it is associated with different high- risk behaviors, particularly substance use. Evidence suggests a high prevalence of ADHD in adults who take methamphetamine (METH). This study aimed at comparing functional level, quality of life, and psychiatric comorbidities in METH users with and without adult ADHD (A-ADHD). Method: In this cross-sectional study, 134 patients who had a history of METH use (at least once in lifetime) were selected from among inpatient and outpatient referrals to a psychiatric hospital. DIVA was performed for those who were positive on the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self-Report-Screening Version (CAARS-SR-SV). The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief (WHOQoL-BREF) were used to assess the participants' level of functioning and quality of life, respectively. Psychiatric comorbidities including substance use disorders were evaluated using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-Axis I (SCID-I). Results: Among the METH users, 10.4% were diagnosed as having A-ADHD. A-ADHD was more prevalent among female METH users than males. The hyperactive-impulsive and combined types were more common than the inattentive type. Opiates and cannabis were the most commonly abused drugs by the 2 groups, while sedative-hypnotic use was significantly higher in the individuals with A-ADHD. Substance-induced mood disorder was the most prevalent comorbidity in the 2 groups and was higher in those with A-ADHD. quality of life and the GAF scores were significantly lower in those with A-ADHD and duration of METH use was higher Compared to the METH users without A-ADHD, (p>0.05). Conclusion: This study provided some preliminary findings supporting the prevalence of Adult ADHD among METH users and its negative impacts on their global functioning and quality of life. To provide more effective intervention for METH users, detection and treatment of those with A-ADHD can be of clinical value.


Adult; Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder; Comorbidity; Function; Methamphetamine; Quality of Life


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