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BMC Public Health. 2018 Jul 11;18(1):861. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5799-5.

Rationale, design, and characteristics of the multimedia family planning campaign for a small, happy, and prosperous family in Ethiopia (SHaPE).

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Department of Advertising & Public Relations, Hanyang University, 55 Hanyangdeahak-ro, Sangnok-gu, Ansan, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.
Graduate School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul, South Korea.
Department of Liberal Arts College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Dongduk Women's University, Wharang-ro, 13 Gil, 60 Sungbook-Gu, Seoul, South Korea.
Korea Population, Health and Welfare Association, 20 Beodeunaru-ro 14ga-gil, Yeongdeungpo-gu, Seoul, South Korea.
EngenderHealth Ethiopia Office, Djibouti Avenue, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
Ethiopia Office, Korean International Cooperation Agency (KOICA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.



Ethiopia, the second most populous country in Africa, has a total fertility rate of 4.6, a decrease from 5.5 in 2000. However, only 35.3% of women in the reproductive age group use modern family planning (FP) methods, and the 22.3% of them who have an unmet need for family planning is among the highest rates in sub-Saharan African countries. The Small, Happy, and Prosperous family in Ethiopia (SHaPE) is one of the country's first comprehensive multimedia family planning campaigns. Its purpose is to increase FP-related knowledge, attitude, and practice of Ethiopians, particularly women of reproductive age.


The SHaPE campaign has multiple components: (1) a nationwide representative survey, which serves as formative research to identify region-specific and culture-appropriate media, messages, and barriers and determinants of family planning; (2) a multimedia communication campaign intervention, including radio dramas and other interpersonal, community-level, and mass media channels; and (3) campaign evaluation, including pre-, process-, and post-evaluation research using both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The main target population for SHaPE is reproductive age women and men in three regions: Amhara, Oromia, and Somali. These regions take up about 66.6% of the entire country and have distinct ethnicities, cultures, and languages.


SHaPE contributes to existing family planning research and intervention because it is theory- and evidence-based, and it employs integrated marketing communications and entertainment-education approaches with key messages that are tailored to audiences within unique cultures. But even within a country, a nationwide campaign with uniform messages is neither possible nor desirable due to different cultures, norms, and languages across regions. Last, media campaigns in developing and underdeveloped countries require constant monitoring of political situations.


Entertainment-education; Ethiopia; Evaluation; Family planning; Multimedia campaign

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