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Prev Med Rep. 2018 Jun 26;11:180-186. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2018.06.013. eCollection 2018 Sep.

Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sleep-related phenomena in 1645 people aged 1-91 years: The Nakanojo Community Study.

Author information

1
Exercise Sciences Research Group, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Itabashi, Tokyo, Japan.
2
Faculty of Kinesiology and Physical Education, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Abstract

Relationships between habitual physical activity and sleep-related phenomena were examined in 623 male and 1022 female Japanese participating in the Nakanojo Community Study, using data collected in 2012-2013. Ages ranged from infancy to very old. Daily step count and daily duration of exercise at an intensity >3 metabolic equivalents (METs) were determined by pedometer/accelerometer, 24 h/day for 1 week. Duplicate axillary temperatures were also taken on rising and when retiring. Total bed time was noted, and the efficiency of sleep determined as hours of actual sleep (from a validated pedometer/accelerometer algorithm) divided by bed time. Step counts and especially duration of activity >3 METs peaked in teenagers and decreased as age advanced (p < 0.001). Both axillary temperatures subsequently showed a gradual age-related decline (p < 0.001). The duration and efficiency of sleep also showed a small age-dependent decrease (p < 0.001). Multivariate-adjusted correlation coefficients indicated a better quality of sleep in individuals who took greater habitual physical activity. In individuals aged ≥40 years, these findings were modified by chronic disease conditions including hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hyperlipemia; after controlling statistically for potential confounders, both physical activity and axillary temperature were lower (p < 0.05 or 0.01), and the time spent lying was longer but the efficiency of sleep was poorer (p < 0.01) in those with chronic conditions. These results suggest that habitual physical activity bears an important relationship to sleep-related phenomena at all ages, with a modification of relationships by chronic disease in people aged ≥40 years.

KEYWORDS:

Axillary temperature; Chronic illness; Moderate-intensity exercise; Sleep efficiency; Step count

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