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Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2018 Jul 3;23:31. doi: 10.1186/s11658-018-0097-x. eCollection 2018.

Genetic variation and relationships in the mitochondrial DNA D-loop region of Qinghai indigenous and commercial pig breeds.

Zhang J1,2, Yang B1,2, Wen X1,2, Sun G2.

Author information

1State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture, Qinghai University, Xining, 810016 Qinghai China.
2College of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, Qinghai University, Xining, Qinghai China.



Bamei pigs are special germplasm resources in Qinghai. In the specific environment of the Qinghai plateau, local breeds, through long-term natural and artificial selection, have acquired a relatively stable population structure and genetic diversity. This study revealed Bamei pigs' genetic diversity at the molecular level and the degree of introgression of commercial breeds into Bamei pigs.


The mitochondrial DNA D-loop region was amplified and sequenced using the ABI 3130 DNA sequencer. Sequences were collected, edited and aligned using the MEGA 5.0, DNASTAR and ClustalX 1.81 software. Haplotypes of all sequences and genetic diversity were analyzed by DnaSP 5.0 software.

Results and conclusions:

We identified a total of 73 polymorphic sites in our 489 novel sequences, including 1 single variable site and 72 parsimony informative sites.Genetic diversity was analyzed in this study. The results showed that haplotype diversity, nucleotide diversity and the average number of nucleotide differences of Bamei pigs were lower than those of commercial pigs. Synthetic evaluation of genetic diversity through principal component analysis indicated that Bamei pigs also showed low genetic diversity. In summary, the results of sequence analysis showed that Bamei pigs were low in genetic diversity, and the introgression of commercial pigs into Bamei pigs was serious.


Bamei pig; Commercial pig; Genetic variation; Mitochondrial DNA

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Conflict of interest statement

Studies involving animals: The animal experiments were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Qinghai University, Xining, China.Not applicable.The authors declare that they have no competing interest.Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

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