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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018 Sep;62:98-106. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2018.07.002. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Effects of the food additives sodium acid pyrophosphate, sodium acetate, and citric acid on hemato-immunological pathological biomarkers in rats: Relation to PPAR-α, PPAR-γ and tnfα signaling pathway.

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Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt. Electronic address:
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.
Immunology Unit, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (ARRI), Gizza, Egypt.
Pathology Department, Animal Reproduction Research Institute (A.R.R.I.), Giza, Egypt.
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt.
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of science, University of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.


The food additives sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP), sodium acetate (SA), and citric acid (CA) were evaluated for their hemato-immunotoxic effects. Forty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed into four groups and were orally administered water, SAPP (12.6 mg/kg), CA (180 mg/kg), or SA (13.5 mg /kg) daily for 90 days. Erythrogram and leukogram profiles were evaluated. The levels of lysozyme, nitric oxide, immunoglobulin, and phagocytic activity were measured. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of splenic tissues were performed. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ (PPAR-α and PPAR-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) genes were assessed. A significant leukopenic condition was observed with SAPP, while CA induced marked leukocytosis, and SA showed a lymphocytosis condition. Both the innate and humoral parameters were significantly depressed. Various pathological lesions were observed, including diffuse hyperplasia of the red pulp, depletion of the white pulp, and capsular and parenchymal fibrosis. A marked decrease in CD3 T-lymphocyte and CD20 B-lymphocyte immunolabeling in rats treated with SAPP and SA was evident. Marked downregulation of PPAR-α and PPAR-γ together with upregulation of TNF-α was recorded. These results indicate that high doses of SAPP, SA and CA exert hematotoxic and immunotoxic effects with long-term exposure.


Citric acid; Food additives; Immune function; Sodium acetate; Sodium acid pyrophosphate

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