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Redox Biol. 2018 Sep;18:65-76. doi: 10.1016/j.redox.2018.06.010. Epub 2018 Jun 27.

ROS-mediated lysosomal membrane permeabilization is involved in bupivacaine-induced death of rabbit intervertebral disc cells.

Author information

1
Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.
2
Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China.
3
Cancer Center, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address: shining1010@hust.edu.cn.
4
Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022, China. Electronic address: xiongliming@hust.edu.cn.

Abstract

Bupivacaine is frequently administered for diagnosing and controlling spine-related pain in interventional spine procedures. However, the potential cytotoxic effects of bupivacaine on intervertebral disc (IVD) cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully established. Here, we showed that bupivacaine decreased the viability of rabbit IVD cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, the short-term cytotoxicity of bupivacaine in IVD cells was primarily due to cell necrosis, as assessed by Annexin V-propidium iodide staining and live/dead cell staining. Necrosis was verified by observations of swollen organelles, plasma membrane rupture, and cellular lysis under transmission electronic microscopy. Interestingly, our data indicated that bupivacaine-induced primary necrosis might involve the necroptosis pathway. The key finding of this study was that bupivacaine was able to induce lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) with the release of cathepsins into the cytosol, as evidenced by LysoTracker Red staining, acridine orange staining, and cathepsin D immunofluorescence staining. Consistently, inhibitors of lysosomal cathepsins, CA074-Me and pepstatin A, significantly reduced bupivacaine-induced cell death. Finally, we found that bupivacaine resulted in an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and that inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-L-cysteine effectively blocked bupivacaine-induced LMP and cell death. In summary, the results of this in vitro study reveal a novel mechanism underlying bupivacaine-induced cell death involving ROS-mediated LMP. Our findings establish a basis for the further investigation of bupivacaine cytotoxicity in an in vivo system.

KEYWORDS:

Bupivacaine; Intervertebral disc; LMP; Necrosis; ROS

PMID:
29986210
PMCID:
PMC6037912
DOI:
10.1016/j.redox.2018.06.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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