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J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018 Oct 1;73(10):2696-2703. doi: 10.1093/jac/dky238.

Tetracycline and fluoroquinolone resistance in clinical Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis isolates in France between 2010 and 2015.

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Univ. Bordeaux, USC-EA 3671 Mycoplasmal and Chlamydial Infections in Humans, Bordeaux, France.
INRA, USC-EA 3671 Mycoplasmal and Chlamydial Infections in Humans, Bordeaux, France.
CHU Bordeaux, Bacteriology Department, French National Reference Centre for Bacterial STI, Bordeaux, France.



As information on Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis resistance is currently limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of Ureaplasma spp. and M. hominis to tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in France.


The susceptibility of 1014 clinical isolates obtained in Bordeaux University Hospital (Bordeaux, France) between 2010 and 2015 was evaluated using two commercial kits, S.I.R. Mycoplasma (Bio-Rad) from 1 January 2010 to 5 October 2012 and MYCOFAST RevolutioN kit (ELITech Group) from 6 October 2012 to 31 December 2015. The MICs of isolates designated as resistant were determined using the broth microdilution assay. Additionally, the tet(M) gene and fluoroquinolone resistance-associated mutations were identified.


Among 831 Ureaplasma spp. isolates, the tetracycline, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin resistance rates were 7.5%, 1.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Among 183 M. hominis isolates, the resistance rates were 14.8%, 2.7% and 1.6% for tetracycline, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, respectively. Over the 6 year period, no significant change in resistance to tetracycline or fluoroquinolones was observed. The tet(M) gene was found in all tetracycline-resistant isolates. All levofloxacin-resistant isolates harboured a mutation in the parC or parE genes. Isolates that were also resistant to moxifloxacin harboured an additional mutation in the gyrA gene. The MYCOFAST RevolutioN kit significantly overestimated levofloxacin and moxifloxacin resistance in Ureaplasma spp. isolates.


Resistance to tetracycline and fluoroquinolones is limited in France in mycoplasmas but compared with a previous report in 1999-2002, a significant increase in tetracycline resistance among Ureaplasma spp. was observed. Ongoing monitoring of the antibiotic susceptibility of these urogenital mycoplasmas remains necessary.


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