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Genome Biol Evol. 2018 Jul 1;10(7):1816-1822. doi: 10.1093/gbe/evy138.

Comparative Genomic Analysis of Two Chilean Renibacterium salmoninarum Isolates and the Type Strain ATCC 33209T.

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Laboratorio de Patología de Organismos Acuáticos y Biotecnología Acuícola, Facultad de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad Andrés Bello, Viña del Mar, Chile.
Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Viña del Mar, Chile.
Instituto de Bioquímica y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.
Centro de Investigación Marina Quintay (CIMARQ), Universidad Andrés Bello, Quintay, Chile.


Renibacterium salmoninarum, a slow-growing facultative intracellular pathogen belonging to the high C + G content Actinobacteria phylum, is the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, a progressive granulomatous infection affecting salmonids worldwide. This Gram-positive bacterium has existed in the Chilean salmonid industry for >30 years, but little or no information is available regarding the virulence mechanisms and genomic characteristics of Chilean isolates. In this study, the genomes of two Chilean isolates (H-2 and DJ2R) were sequenced, and a search was conducted for genes and proteins involved in virulence and pathogenicity, and we compare with the type strain ATCC 33209 T genome. The genome sizes of H-2 and DJ2R are 3,155,332 bp and 3,155,228 bp, respectively. They genomes presented six ribosomal RNA, 46 transcription RNA, and 25 noncodingRNA, and both had the same 56.27% G + C content described for the type strain ATCC 33209 T. A total of 3,522 and 3,527 coding sequences were found for H-2 and DJ2R, respectively. Meanwhile, the ATCC 33209 T type strain had 3,519 coding sequences. The in silico genome analysis revealed a genes related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis, iron transport and others metabolic pathway. Also, the data indicated that R salmoninarum may have a variety of possible virulence-factor and antibiotic-resistance strategies. Interestingly, many of genes had high identities with Mycobacterium species, a known pathogenic Actinobacteria bacterium. In summary, this study provides the first insights into and initial steps towards understanding the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance, virulence mechanisms and host/environment adaptation in two Chilean R. salmoninarum isolates that contain proteins of which were similar to those of Mycobacterium. Furthermore, important information is presented that could facilitate the development of preventive and treatment measures against R. salmoninarum in Chile and worldwide.

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