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Exp Eye Res. 2018 Nov;176:147-160. doi: 10.1016/j.exer.2018.07.004. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Narrow-band, long-wavelength lighting promotes hyperopia and retards vision-induced myopia in infant rhesus monkeys.

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College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia.
College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA.
College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX, USA; Brien Holden Vision Institute, Sydney, Australia. Electronic address:


The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of narrow band, long-wavelength lighting on normal refractive development and the phenomena of lens compensation and form-deprivation myopia (FDM) in infant rhesus monkeys. Starting at 24 and continuing until 151 days of age, 27 infant rhesus monkeys were reared under long-wavelength LED lighting (630 nm; illuminance = 274 ± 64 lux) with unrestricted vision (Red Light (RL) controls, n = 7) or a +3 D (+3D-RL, n = 7), -3 D (-3D-RL, n = 6) or diffuser lens (From Deprivation (FD-RL), n = 7) in front of one eye and a plano lens in front of the fellow eye. Refractive development, corneal power, and vitreous chamber depth were measured by retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasonography, respectively. Comparison data were obtained from normal monkeys (Normal Light (NL) controls, n = 39) and lens- (+3D-NL, n = 9; -3D-NL, n = 18) and diffuser-reared controls (FD-NL, n = 16) housed under white fluorescent lighting. At the end of the treatment period, median refractive errors for both eyes of all RL groups were significantly more hyperopic than that for NL groups (P = 0.0001 to 0.016). In contrast to fluorescent lighting, red ambient lighting greatly reduced the likelihood that infant monkeys would develop either FDM or compensating myopia in response to imposed hyperopic defocus. However, as in the +3D-NL monkeys, the treated eyes of the +3D-RL monkeys exhibited relative hyperopic shifts resulting in significant anisometropias that compensated for the monocular lens-imposed defocus (P = 0.001). The red-light-induced alterations in refractive development were associated with reduced vitreous chamber elongation and increases in choroidal thickness. The results suggest that chromatic cues play a role in vision-dependent emmetropization in primates. Narrow-band, long-wavelength lighting prevents the axial elongation typically produced by either form deprivation or hyperopic defocus, possibly by creating direction signals normally associated with myopic defocus.


Ambient lighting; Emmetropization; Hyperopia; Myopia; Ocular growth; Refractive error

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