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J Strength Cond Res. 2018 Jul 2. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002740. [Epub ahead of print]

Footwear and Sex Differences in Performance and Joint Kinetics During Maximal Vertical Jumping.

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School of Health Studies, The University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee.
Department of Health, Exercise, and Sport Science, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas.


Smith, RE, Paquette, MR, Harry, JR, Powell, DW, and Weiss, LW. Footwear and sex differences in performance and joint kinetics during maximal vertical jumping. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This investigation examined the effects of footwear and sex on vertical jump displacement and joint power contributions. Twenty-three young adults with basketball experience performed 3 maximal countermovement vertical jumps in minimal and standard footwear. Ground reaction force and 3D kinematic data were collected during jumping. Footwear by sex analysis of variance for all dependent variables and effect sizes (d) was computed. An interaction effect showed that men produced greater lower-limb-positive work than women in standard footwear. Men jumped higher than women (d = 2.53) and produced greater peak ankle, knee and hip joint moments (d > 0.99), positive joint powers (d > 1.07) and, positive knee and hip joint work (d > 1.04) with no sex differences for negative joint powers and work (p > 0.05). Minimal footwear produced less peak-positive knee power (d = 0.27) and less positive ankle (d = 0.34) and knee (d = 0.21) joint work than standard footwear. Because negative joint power and work were similar between sexes, men may be better able to use the stretch-shortening cycle compared with women. Higher joint mechanical demands may provide a better vertical jumping training stimulus in standard compared with minimal footwear. Future studies should investigate footwear training effects on performance and joint mechanics during jumping.

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