Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Nat Commun. 2018 Jul 5;9(1):2615. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-04921-2.

Mouse MRI shows brain areas relatively larger in males emerge before those larger in females.

Author information

1
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada. lily.qiu@sickkids.ca.
2
Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5T 3H7, Canada. lily.qiu@sickkids.ca.
3
Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada. lily.qiu@sickkids.ca.
4
Mouse Imaging Centre, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5T 3H7, Canada.
5
Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5G 1L7, Canada.
6
Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.
7
Skirball Institute of Biomolecular Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
8
Department of Radiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 10016, USA.
9
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L8, Canada.
10
Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.
11
Division of Endocrinology, The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON, M5G 1X8, Canada.
12
Departments of Paediatrics and Physiology, The University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A8, Canada.

Abstract

Sex differences exist in behaviors, disease and neuropsychiatric disorders. Sexual dimorphisms however, have yet to be studied across the whole brain and across a comprehensive time course of postnatal development. Here, we use manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to longitudinally image male and female C57BL/6J mice across 9 time points, beginning at postnatal day 3. We recapitulate findings on canonically dimorphic areas, demonstrating MEMRI's ability to study neuroanatomical sex differences. We discover, upon whole-brain volume correction, that neuroanatomical regions larger in males develop earlier than those larger in females. Groups of areas with shared sexually dimorphic developmental trajectories reflect behavioral and functional networks, and expression of genes involved with sex processes. Also, post-pubertal neuroanatomy is highly individualized, and individualization occurs earlier in males. Our results demonstrate the ability of MEMRI to reveal comprehensive developmental differences between male and female brains, which will improve our understanding of sex-specific predispositions to various neuropsychiatric disorders.

PMID:
29976930
PMCID:
PMC6033927
DOI:
10.1038/s41467-018-04921-2
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center