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Science. 2018 Jul 6;361(6397):81-85. doi: 10.1126/science.aao4776.

The evolutionary history of dogs in the Americas.

Author information

1
Transmissible Cancer Group, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.
2
Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham, UK.
3
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig, Germany.
4
The Palaeogenomics and Bio-Archaeology Research Network, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
5
School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.
6
Department of Anthropology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA.
7
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
8
Department of Archaeology, Classics and Egyptology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
9
Department of Government and Sociology, Georgia College and State University, Milledgeville, GA, USA.
10
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA.
11
Department of Earth Sciences, Natural History Museum, London, UK.
12
Department of Anthropology, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, NY, USA.
13
Pacific Identifications, Victoria, Canada.
14
Arbor Biosciences, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
15
Millennia Research, Victoria, Canada.
16
Department of Archaeology, Memorial University, Queen's College, St. John's, Canada.
17
Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
18
The Qimmeq Project, University of Greenland, Nuussuaq, Greenland.
19
Department of Anthropology, Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara, CA, USA.
20
Department of Anthropology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.
21
Institute for the History of Material Culture, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia.
22
Geological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia.
23
Centro INAH Yucatán, Mérida, Yucatán, México.
24
Department of Archaeology, BioArCh, University of York, York, UK.
25
UMR 7209, Archéozoologie, Archéobotanique, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
26
Research and Collections Center, Illinois State Museum, Springfield, IL, USA.
27
Touray & Meyer Veterinary Clinic, Serrekunda, Gambia.
28
Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Anthropology, Indiana University Bloomington, Bloomington, IN, USA.
29
Department of Mammalogy, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA.
30
Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
31
Arctic & Antarctic Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia.
32
Department of Anthropology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
33
Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
34
VNIIOkeangeologia Research Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia.
35
Center of Excellence in Paleontology, East Tennessee State University, Gray, TN, USA.
36
Norwegian University of Science and Technology, University Museum, Trondheim, Norway.
37
Department of Archaeology, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.
38
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.
39
Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana-Champaign, IL, USA.
40
Transmissible Cancer Group, Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK. laurent.frantz@qmul.ac.uk greger.larson@arch.ox.ac.uk epm27@cam.ac.uk.
41
The Palaeogenomics and Bio-Archaeology Research Network, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. laurent.frantz@qmul.ac.uk greger.larson@arch.ox.ac.uk epm27@cam.ac.uk.
42
School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Abstract

Dogs were present in the Americas before the arrival of European colonists, but the origin and fate of these precontact dogs are largely unknown. We sequenced 71 mitochondrial and 7 nuclear genomes from ancient North American and Siberian dogs from time frames spanning ~9000 years. Our analysis indicates that American dogs were not derived from North American wolves. Instead, American dogs form a monophyletic lineage that likely originated in Siberia and dispersed into the Americas alongside people. After the arrival of Europeans, native American dogs almost completely disappeared, leaving a minimal genetic legacy in modern dog populations. The closest detectable extant lineage to precontact American dogs is the canine transmissible venereal tumor, a contagious cancer clone derived from an individual dog that lived up to 8000 years ago.

Comment in

PMID:
29976825
DOI:
10.1126/science.aao4776
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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