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BMC Nephrol. 2018 Jul 4;19(1):162. doi: 10.1186/s12882-018-0961-y.

Spontaneous remission of adult-onset minimal change nephrotic syndrome associated with influenza B infection: a case report.

Author information

1
Department of Cardiology and Nephrology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan.
2
Department of Cardiology and Nephrology, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-174 Edobashi, Tsu, Mie, 514-8507, Japan. ishijin@clin.medic.mie-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

While the majority of adult-onset minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a primary or an idiopathic form of disease, it can also occur as a secondary form. Reports on the spontaneous remission of MCNS are rare since the condition is typically treated with corticosteroids. We herein describe the spontaneous remission of adult-onset MCNS in a patient who developed nephrotic syndrome after type B influenza infection.

CASE PRESENTATION:

A 50-year-old woman experienced fever, cough, malaise, and low back pain, which had persisted for 6 days before she presented to our hospital, and edema of the face and limbs, which had persisted for 5 days before her presentation. She was diagnosed with type B influenza infection and later exhibited an exacerbation of facial edema, decreased urine output, and a high level of proteinuria. She was referred to our department after the diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome. On admission, her proteinuria level was 20.88 g/gCr and her selectivity index value was 0.13. The examination of a kidney biopsy specimen obtained on the fourth day of hospitalization under a light microscope revealed minor abnormalities. An immunofluorescence showed only nonspecific granular IgM deposits in the mesangium. Electron microscopy showed extensive foot process effacement without any immune complex deposits. Based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with MCNS. After admission, the proteinuria decreased to 0.06 g/gCr with rest and sodium restriction (6 g/day) alone; a complete remission from nephrotic syndrome was observed at approximately 2 weeks after the onset of symptoms. There have been no signs of recurrence of nephrotic syndrome in the one years since.

CONCLUSION:

We experienced a rare case in which spontaneous remission of MCNS occurred within a short period of 2 weeks after influenza B infection. When patients present with nephrotic syndrome after an infection, it is necessary to consider MCNS in the differential diagnosis, which also includes post-infectious glomerulonephritis and the acute exacerbation of IgA nephropathy.

KEYWORDS:

Minimal change nephrotic syndrome; Spontaneous remission; Type B influenza infection

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