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Int J Cancer. 2018 Dec 1;143(11):2677-2686. doi: 10.1002/ijc.31640. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Circulating isoflavone and lignan concentrations and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from seven prospective studies including 2,828 cases and 5,593 controls.

Author information

1
Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
2
Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Nuthetal, Germany.
3
Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa-BIODONOSTIA, Basque Regional Health Department, San Sebastian, Spain.
4
CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health, Madrid, Spain.
5
Danish Cancer Society Research Center, Strandboulevarden 49, Copenhagen, Denmark.
6
Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy.
7
Unit of Epidemiology, Regional Health Service ASL TO3, Grugliasco, Italy.
8
Section of Nutrition and Metabolism, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
9
Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.
10
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.
11
Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, Ioannina, Greece.
12
Department of Public Health and Primary Care, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
13
Department of Research, Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo, Norway.
14
Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
15
Clinical Research Centre, Skåne University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
16
Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
17
Nutritional Research and Molecular Periodontology, Umeå University, Umeö, Sweden.
18
Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
19
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
20
Arctic Research Centre, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
21
Department of Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Minami-ku, Hiroshima, Japan.
22
Department of Public Health, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Japan.
23
Department of Urology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine Graduate School of Medical Science, Kamikgyo-ku, Kyoto, Japan.
24
Department of Preventive Medicine and Community Health, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Yahatanishi-ku, Kitakyushu, Japan.
25
Epidemiology and Prevention Group, Center for Public Health Sciences, National Cancer Center, Tokyo, Japan.
26
Clinical Trial Service Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
27
Epidemiological Studies Unit, Nuffield Department of Population Health, Big Data Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Phytoestrogens may influence prostate cancer development. This study aimed to examine the association between prediagnostic circulating concentrations of isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, equol) and lignans (enterolactone and enterodiol) and the risk of prostate cancer. Individual participant data were available from seven prospective studies (two studies from Japan with 241 cases and 503 controls and five studies from Europe with 2,828 cases and 5,593 controls). Because of the large difference in circulating isoflavone concentrations between Japan and Europe, analyses of the associations of isoflavone concentrations and prostate cancer risk were evaluated separately. Prostate cancer risk by study-specific fourths of circulating concentrations of each phytoestrogen was estimated using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. In men from Japan, those with high compared to low circulating equol concentrations had a lower risk of prostate cancer (multivariable-adjusted OR for upper quartile [Q4] vs. Q1 = 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.39-0.97), although there was no significant trend (OR per 75 percentile increase = 0.69, 95 CI = 0.46-1.05, ptrend = 0.085); Genistein and daidzein concentrations were not significantly associated with risk (ORs for Q4 vs. Q1 = 0.70, 0.45-1.10 and 0.71, 0.45-1.12, respectively). In men from Europe, circulating concentrations of genistein, daidzein and equol were not associated with risk. Circulating lignan concentrations were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer, overall or by disease aggressiveness or time to diagnosis. There was no strong evidence that prediagnostic circulating concentrations of isoflavones or lignans are associated with prostate cancer risk, although further research is warranted in populations where isoflavone intakes are high.

KEYWORDS:

isoflavones; lignans; phytoestrogens; pooled analysis; prostate cancer risk

PMID:
29971774
DOI:
10.1002/ijc.31640

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