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J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2018 Jul 30;24(3):367-386. doi: 10.5056/jnm18071.

Role of Gut Microbiota-Gut Hormone Axis in the Pathophysiology of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Mukogawa, Nishinomiya, Japan.
2
Department of Digestive Diseases, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Abstract

Gut microbiota exert a pivotal influence on various functions including gastrointestinal (GI) motility, metabolism, nutrition, immunity, and the neuroendocrine system in the host. These effects are mediated by not only short-chain fatty acids produced by microbiota but also gut hormones and inflammatory signaling by enteroendocrine and immune cells under the influence of the microbiota. GI motility is orchestrated by the enteric nervous system and hormonal networks, and disturbance of GI motility plays an important role in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). In this context, microbiota-associated mediators are considered to act on specific receptors, thus affecting the enteric nervous system and, subsequently, GI motility. Thus, the pathophysiology of FGIDs is based on alterations of the gut microbiota/gut hormone axis, which have crucial effects on GI motility.

KEYWORDS:

Enteric nervous system; Functional gastrointestinal disorders; Gastrointestinal hormones; Irritable bowel syndrome; Microbiome

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