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Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2018 Nov;44(11):1752-1761. doi: 10.1080/03639045.2018.1496445. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Augmented anticancer activity of naringenin-loaded TPGS polymeric nanosuspension for drug resistive MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

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a Department of Biotechnology , Nandha College of Pharmacy and Research Institute , Erode , India.
b Department of Pharmaceutics , JSS College of Pharmacy, Ootacamund, JSS Academy of Higher Education & Research , Mysuru , India.


Naringenin (NAR) is a naturally occurring plant flavonoid, found predominantly in citrus fruits, possesses a wide range of pharmacological properties. However, despite the therapeutic potential of NAR, its clinical development has been hindered due to low aqueous solubility and inefficient transport across biological membranes resulting in low bioavailability at tumor sites. In our previous studies, nanosuspension of naringenin (NARNS) was prepared using high pressure homogenization method using different polymers. D-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate 1000 (TPGS) was added as a co-stabilizer. All formulation characterization studies were performed. As a continuation of our previous research, current study has further evaluated the ability of the TPGS-coated NARNS, to reverse drug-resistance of P-gp-over expressing MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line and animal model. MTT-based colorimetric assay revealed higher cytotoxic efficacy of NARNS than free NAR in MCF-7 cells. NARNS treatment significantly increased intracellular ROS level, mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activity, lipid peroxidation status (TBARS) and decreased GSH levels when compared to free NAR treatment in MCF-7 cells. It has been also noticed that the presence of apoptotic indices (membrane blebbing, nuclear fragmentation) in NARNS treated cancer cells. Further, NARNS exhibited dose-dependent in vitro antitumor activity with DLA cells. A significant increase in the life span and a decrease in the cancer cell number and tumor weight were noted in the tumor-induced mice after treatment with NARNS.


Cancer; apoptosis; formulation; p-glycoprotein

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