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J Diabetes Res. 2018 Jun 5;2018:4207067. doi: 10.1155/2018/4207067. eCollection 2018.

Higher Concentrations of BCAAs and 3-HIB Are Associated with Insulin Resistance in the Transition from Gestational Diabetes to Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

1
Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2
Swedish NMR Centre, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Abstract

Aim:

Determine the metabolic profile and identify risk factors of women transitioning from gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods:

237 women diagnosed with GDM underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), anthropometrics assessment, and completed lifestyle questionnaires six years after pregnancy. Blood was analysed for clinical variables (e.g., insulin, glucose, HbA1c, adiponectin, leptin, and lipid levels) and NMR metabolomics. Based on the OGTT, women were divided into three groups: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and T2DM.

Results:

Six years after GDM, 19% of subjects had T2DM and 19% IGT. After BMI adjustment, the IGT group had lower HDL, higher leptin, and higher free fatty acid (FFA) levels, and the T2DM group higher triglyceride, FFA, and C-reactive protein levels than the NGT group. IGT and T2DM groups reported lower physical activity. NMR measurements revealed that levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and the valine metabolite 3-hydroxyisobyturate were higher in T2DM and IGT groups and correlated with measures of insulin resistance and lipid metabolism.

Conclusion:

In addition to well-known clinical risk factors, BCAAs and 3-hydroxyisobyturate are potential markers to be evaluated as predictors of metabolic risk after pregnancy complicated by GDM.

PMID:
29967793
PMCID:
PMC6008749
DOI:
10.1155/2018/4207067
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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