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PeerJ. 2018 Jun 27;6:e5049. doi: 10.7717/peerj.5049. eCollection 2018.

Significance and potential of marine microbial natural bioactive compounds against biofilms/biofouling: necessity for green chemistry.

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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Clinical Nutrition, College of Applied Medical Sciences, University of Hail, Hail, Saudi Arabia.
Department of Biosciences, Bapalal Vaidhya Botanical Research Centre, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat, India.
School of Forensic and Applied Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston, UK.


Natural products from the unique environments of sea water and oceans represent a largely unfamiliar source for isolation of new microbes, which are potent producers of secondary bioactive metabolites. These unique life-forms from the marine ecosphere have served as an important source of drugs since ancient times and still offer a valuable resource for novel findings by providing remedial treatments. Therefore, it can be expected that many naturally bioactive marine microbial compounds with novel structures and bioactivities against those from terrestrial environments may be found among marine metabolites. Biofilms in aquatic environment possess serious problems to naval forces and oceanic industries around the globe. Current anti-biofilm or anti-biofouling technology is based on the use of toxic substances that can be harmful to their surrounding natural locales. Comprehensive research has been done to examine the bioactive potential of marine microbes. Results are remarkably varied and dynamic, but there is an urgent need for bioactive compounds with environmentally friendly or "green" chemical activities. Marine microbes have the potential as upcoming and promising source of non-toxic compounds with sustainable anti-biofouling/anti-biofilm properties as they can produce substances that can inhibit not only the chemical components required for biofilm production but also the attachment, microorganism growth, and/or cell-cell communication.


Bioactive compounds; Biofilm; Biofouling; Green chemistry; Marine microbes

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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