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Sci Rep. 2018 Jul 2;8(1):9904. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-28362-5.

Severely low serum magnesium is associated with increased risks of positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody and hypothyroidism: A cross-sectional study.

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China.
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, No22 Qixiangtai Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300070, China.
3
Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, No 253 Gongye Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510282, China.
4
Department of Endocrinology, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, Kaifeng, No 8 Baobei Road, Henan Province, 475000, China.
5
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism and Institute of Endocrinology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province, 110001, China.
6
Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No154 Anshan Road, Heping District, Tianjin, 300052, China. meichuqin@163.com.

Abstract

Trace elements, such as iodine and selenium, are closely related to autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid function. Low serum magnesium is associated with several chronic diseases; however, its associations with autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid function are unclear. We investigated the relationships between low serum magnesium, autoimmune thyroiditis, and thyroid function in 1,257 Chinese participants. Demographic data were collected via questionnaires, and levels of serum thyroid stimulating hormone, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody, anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TGAb), free thyroxine, serum magnesium, serum iodine, and urinary iodine concentration were measured. Participants were divided into serum magnesium level quartiles (≤0.55, 0.551-0.85, 0.851-1.15, and >1.15 mmol/L). The median serum magnesium level was 0.89 (0.73-1.06) mmol/L; levels ≤0.55 mmol/L were considered severely low (5.9% of participants). The risks of TGAb positivity and Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) diagnosed using ultrasonography in the lowest quartile group were higher than those in the adequate magnesium group (0.851-1.15 mmol/L) (p < 0.01, odds ratios [ORs] = 2.748-3.236). The risks of total and subclinical-only hypothyroidism in the lowest quartile group were higher than those in the adequate magnesium group (0.851-1.15 mmol/L) (p < 0.01, ORs = 4.482-4.971). Severely low serum magnesium levels are associated with an increased rate of TGAb positivity, HT, and hypothyroidism.

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