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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Jul 17;115(29):7557-7562. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1804921115. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association with humans.

Author information

1
Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, United Kingdom.
2
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark.
3
Institute of Molecular Biology, National Academy of Sciences, 0014 Yerevan, Armenia.
4
Department of Anthropology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H4, Canada.
5
Department of History, Irkutsk State University, 664003 Irkutsk, Russia.
6
Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 00-679 Warsaw, Poland.
7
The National Museum of Denmark, 1220 Copenhagen, Denmark.
8
School of GeoScience, University of Edinburgh, EH8 9XP Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
9
Thames Valley Archaeological Services (TVAS), RG1 5NR Reading, United Kingdom.
10
Laboratory of Theriology, Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia.
11
Institute for History of Medicine and Foreign Languages, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, 121 08 Prague, Czech Republic.
12
Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University, 621 67 Visby, Sweden.
13
Institute of History and Cultural Heritage, National Academy of Sciences, 720001 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
14
Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Teilum, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.
15
Department of Viroscience, Erasmus Medical Centre, 3015 CN Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
16
Institute of Virology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 10117 Berlin, Germany.
17
Department of Historical Studies, University of Gothenburg, 412 61 Göteborg, Sweden.
18
Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark; ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk tcj25@cam.ac.uk.
19
Cambridge GeoGenetics Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, United Kingdom.
20
Human Genetics, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, CB10 1SA Hinxton, United Kingdom.
21
Center for Pathogen Evolution, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, United Kingdom; ewillerslev@snm.ku.dk tcj25@cam.ac.uk.

Abstract

Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a ubiquitous human pathogen associated with a number of conditions, such as fifth disease in children and arthritis and arthralgias in adults. B19V is thought to evolve exceptionally rapidly among DNA viruses, with substitution rates previously estimated to be closer to those typical of RNA viruses. On the basis of genetic sequences up to ∼70 years of age, the most recent common ancestor of all B19V has been dated to the early 1800s, and it has been suggested that genotype 1, the most common B19V genotype, only started circulating in the 1960s. Here we present 10 genomes (63.9-99.7% genome coverage) of B19V from dental and skeletal remains of individuals who lived in Eurasia and Greenland from ∼0.5 to ∼6.9 thousand years ago (kya). In a phylogenetic analysis, five of the ancient B19V sequences fall within or basal to the modern genotype 1, and five fall basal to genotype 2, showing a long-term association of B19V with humans. The most recent common ancestor of all B19V is placed ∼12.6 kya, and we find a substitution rate that is an order of magnitude lower than inferred previously. Further, we are able to date the recombination event between genotypes 1 and 3 that formed genotype 2 to ∼5.0-6.8 kya. This study emphasizes the importance of ancient viral sequences for our understanding of virus evolution and phylogenetics.

KEYWORDS:

ancient DNA; paleo virology; parvovirus B19; virology; virus evolution

PMID:
29967156
PMCID:
PMC6055166
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1804921115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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