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J Surg Educ. 2018 Jun 26. pii: S1931-7204(18)30226-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jsurg.2018.05.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Understanding and Assessing Nontechnical Skills in Robotic Urological Surgery: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Validity Evidence.

Author information

1
Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
2
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
3
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address: mitchell.goldenberg@mail.utoronto.ca.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Robotic urological surgery (RUS) has seen widespread adoption across institutions in the last decade. To match this rapid growth, it is imperative to develop a structured RUS curriculum that addresses both technical and nontechnical competencies. Emerging evidence has shown that nontechnical skills form a critical component of RUS training. The purpose of this review is to examine the validity evidence of available nontechnical skills assessment tools in RUS.

METHODS:

A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO was conducted to identify primary articles using nontechnical skills assessment tools in RUS. Messick's validity framework and the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument were utilized to evaluate the quality of the validity evidence of the abstracted articles.

RESULTS:

Of the 566 articles identified, 12 used nontechnical skills assessment tools in RUS. The metrics used ranged from self-assessment using global rating scales, to objective measures such as electroencephalography. The setting of these evaluations ranged from immersive and virtual reality-based simulators to live surgery.

CONCLUSIONS:

Limited effort has been made to develop nontechnical skills assessment tools in RUS. Recently, there has been a shift from subjective to objective measures of nontechnical performance, as well asthe development of assessments specific to RUS. However, the validity evidence supporting these nontechnical assessments is limited at this time, including their relationship to technical skills, and their impact on surgical outcomes.

KEYWORDS:

Education; Interpersonal and Communication Skills; Nontechnical skill assessment; Practice-Based Learning and Improvement; Robotic surgery; Simulation; Urology residency training

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