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J Clin Pharmacol. 2018 Sep;58(9):1123-1130. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1273. Epub 2018 Jun 29.

Individualized Pharmacokinetic Dosing of Vancomycin Reduces Time to Therapeutic Trough Concentrations in Critically Ill Patients.

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Department of Pharmacy Practice, Loma Linda University School of Pharmacy, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
Department of Pharmacy, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA, USA.
Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA.


Dosing vancomycin in critically ill patients often results in subtherapeutic and supratherapeutic trough concentrations. In this retrospective study, we compared the time to goal trough attainment and incidence of acute kidney injury in intensive care unit (ICU) patients whose vancomycin was dosed by a pharmacy pharmacokinetic (PK) dosing and monitoring service to the standard of care. Three-hundred fifty adult ICU patients at a Level 1 trauma, teaching hospital who received vancomycin for >24 hours from February 1, 2016, to November 30, 2016, were screened. Patients were included in the PK group if consecutive serum concentrations were used to calculate individualized PK and determine a dosing regimen. Patients who were dosed using troughs only were then matched 1-to-1 to the PK group by date of vancomycin initiation and included in the traditional group. Fifty patients were included in each group. Baseline characteristics were similar, except the PK group had more patients under the care of the neuromedical ICU service (42% vs 18%; P = .02) and fewer patients with a corrected creatinine clearance <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (22% vs 46%; P = .02). Attainment of goal trough concentrations for the PK and traditional groups were 84.4% and 29.4% by 48 hours (P = .0001), 88.4% and 60.7% by 72 hours (P = .009), and 92.9% and 77.8% by 96 hours (P = .1), respectively. Incidence of acute kidney injury between the PK and traditional groups was not statistically significant (8.3% vs 14%; P = .5). Utilization of individualized pharmacokinetic dosing of vancomycin in critically ill patients resulted in faster goal trough attainment without an increase in nephrotoxicity.


critical care; pharmacokinetics; pharmacotherapy; therapeutic drug monitoring; vancomycin

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