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J Hypertens. 2018 Aug;36(8):1671-1679. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001737.

Long-term yogurt consumption and risk of incident hypertension in adults.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine/Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Boston University School of Medicine.
2
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health.
3
Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health.
4
Department of Health Sciences/Programs in Nutrition, Sargent College of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, Boston University.
5
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the relation between yogurt consumption as well as cheese, milk, and total dairy, and high blood pressure (HBP) in two Nurses' Health Study cohorts (NHS, n = 69 298), NHS II (n = 84 368) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, n = 30 512).

METHODS:

NHS, NHS II, and HPFS participants were followed for incident HBP for up to 30, 20, and 24 years, respectively. Hazard ratios were calculated using time-dependent multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Pooled risk estimates were derived from fixed effects meta-analyses.

RESULTS:

Participants consuming at least five servings per week (vs. <1 serving per month) of yogurt in NHS, NHS II, and HPFS had 19% (95% CI 0.75-0.87), 17% (95% CI 0.77-0.90), and 6% (95% CI 0.83-1.07) lower HBP risks, respectively. In pooled analyses of these cohorts, higher yogurt consumption was linked with 16% (95% CI 0.80-0.88) lower HBP risk; higher total dairy (3 to <6 vs. <0.5 servings/day), milk (2 to <6/day vs. <4/week) and cheese (1 to 4/day vs. <1/week) were associated with 16% (95% CI 0.81-0.87), 12% (95% CI 0.86-0.90), and 6% (95% CI 0.90-0.97) lower HBP risks, respectively. After controlling for BMI as a possible causal intermediate, total dairy, yogurt, milk, and cheese were associated with 13, 10, 8, and 8% lower HBP risks, respectively. The combination of higher yogurt intake and higher DASH ('Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension') diet scores was associated with 30% (95% CI 0.66-0.75) lower HBP risk compared with lower levels of both factors.

CONCLUSION:

Higher total dairy intake, especially in the form of yogurt, was associated with lower risk of incident HBP in middle-aged and older adult men and women.

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