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J Exp Biol. 2018 Aug 3;221(Pt 15). pii: jeb181438. doi: 10.1242/jeb.181438.

Changes in hemolymph total CO2 content during the water-to-air respiratory transition of amphibiotic dragonflies.

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Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada.
PreSens Precision Sensing GmbH, Regensburg 93053, Germany.
Department of Zoology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada


Dragonflies (Odonata, Anisoptera) are amphibiotic; the nymph is aquatic and breathes water using a rectal gill before metamorphosing into the winged adult, which breathes air through spiracles. While the evolutionary and developmental transition from water breathing to air breathing is known to be associated with a dramatic rise in internal CO2 levels, the changes in blood-gas composition experienced by amphibiotic insects, which represent an ancestral air-to-water transition, are unknown. This study measured total CO2 (TCO2) in hemolymph collected from aquatic nymphs and air-breathing adults of Anax junius, Aeshna multicolor (Aeshnidae), Libellula quadrimaculata and Libellulaforensis (Libellulidae). Hemolymph PCO2  was also measured in vivo in both aeshnid nymphs and marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax. f. virginalis) using a novel fiber-optic CO2 sensor. The hemolymph TCO2 of the pre- and early-final instar nymphs was found to be significantly lower than that of the air-breathing adults. However, the TCO2 of the late-final instar aeshnid nymphs was not significantly different from that of the air-breathing adults, despite the late-final nymphs still breathing water. TCO2 and PCO2  were also significantly higher in the hemolymph of early-final aeshnid nymphs compared with values for the water-breathing crayfish. Thus, while dragonfly nymphs show an increase in internal CO2 as they transition from water to air, from an evolutionary standpoint, the nymph's ability to breathe water is associated with a comparatively minor decrease in hemolymph TCO2 relative to that of the air-breathing adult.


Aquatic; Blood-gas composition; Insect; PCO2; TCO2; Tracheal gill

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