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Eur J Nutr. 2019 Aug;58(5):1947-1960. doi: 10.1007/s00394-018-1749-3. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Diet as moderator in the association of adiposity with inflammatory biomarkers among adolescents in the HELENA study.

Author information

1
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, Block K3, 4th Floor, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. aline.barbedoarouca@ugent.be.
2
GENUD: "Growth, Exercise, Nutrition and Development" Research Group, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, University of Zaragoza, Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2), Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Aragón (IIS Aragón), Spain, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
3
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn), Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
4
Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Technology and Nutrition, Madrid, Spain.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Nutrition and Metabolism, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pecs, Hungary.
7
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science & Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
8
Faculty of Medicine, University Lille, Lille, France.
9
Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, Crete, Greece.
10
Research Department Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund, Pediatric University Clinic, Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum, Germany.
11
Department of Biosciences, Unit for Preventive Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, Sweden.
12
Department of Medical Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
13
Council for Agricultural Research and Economics, Research Center for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy.
14
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, Block K3, 4th Floor, 9000, Ghent, Belgium.
15
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
16
ImFINE Research Group, Department of Health and Human Performance, Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte-INEF, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.
17
Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185, Block K3, 4th Floor, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. nathalie.michels@ugent.be.

Abstract

AIM:

Our aim is to demonstrate that a healthy diet might reduce the relation between adiposity and inflammation, whereas an unhealthy diet may increase the effect of adiposity on inflammatory biomarkers.

METHODS:

In 618 adolescents (13-17 years) of the European HELENA study, data were available on body composition, a set of inflammation markers, and food intake determined by a self-administered computerized 24-h recall. A 9-point Mediterranean diet score and an antioxidant-rich diet score were used as dietary parameters and tested as moderator. Total body fat was represented by the sum of six skinfold thicknesses and central adiposity by waist circumference. A set of inflammation-related biomarkers was used as outcome: a pro/anti-inflammatory interleukins ratio, TGFβ-1, C-reactive protein, TNF-α, 3 cell adhesion molecules, and 3 types of immune cells; gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and homocysteine were used as cardiovascular disease risk biomarkers, and alanine transaminase (ALT) as liver dysfunction biomarker. Multiple linear regression analyses tested moderation by diet in the adiposity-inflammation association and were adjusted for age, sex, country, puberty, socioeconomic status.

RESULTS:

Both the Mediterranean and antioxidant-rich diet, and overall and central adiposity, were important in the moderation. Diet was a significant protective moderator in the effect of adiposity on the pro/anti-inflammatory interleukins ratio, TGFβ-1, GGT, and ALT.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, in some cases, a diet rich in antioxidants and essential nutrients may attenuate the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers caused by adiposity, whereas a poor diet appears to contribute to the onset of early oxidative stress signs.

KEYWORDS:

Adiposity; Adolescents; Low-grade inflammation; Mediterranean diet score

PMID:
29948222
DOI:
10.1007/s00394-018-1749-3

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