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Diabetologia. 2018 Sep;61(9):1895-1901. doi: 10.1007/s00125-018-4658-3. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

Novel approaches to restore beta cell function in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA.
2
Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology and Nutrition, Department of Medicine, VA Puget Sound Health Care System and University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
3
Department of Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Research Institute, Beckman Research Institute of City of Hope, 1500 E. Duarte Rd, Duarte, CA, 91010, USA. dthurmond@coh.org.

Abstract

The World Health Organization estimates that diabetes prevalence has risen from 108 million in 1980 to 422 million in 2014, with type 2 diabetes accounting for more than 90% of these cases. Furthermore, the prevalence of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) is more than 40% in some countries and is associated with a global rise in obesity. Therefore it is imperative that we develop new approaches to reduce the development of prediabetes and progression to type 2 diabetes. In this review, we explore the gains made over the past decade by focused efforts to improve insulin secretion by the beta cell or insulin sensitivity of target tissues. We also describe multitasking candidates, which could improve both beta cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Moreover, we highlight provocative findings indicating that additional glucose regulatory tissues, such as the brain, may be key therapeutic targets. Taken together, the promise of these new multi-faceted approaches reinforces the importance of understanding and tackling type 2 diabetes pathogenesis from a multi-tissue perspective.

KEYWORDS:

Beta cell dysfunction; Insulin resistance; Insulin secretion; Obesity; Prediabetes; Review; Type 2 diabetes

PMID:
29947922
PMCID:
PMC6070408
[Available on 2019-09-01]
DOI:
10.1007/s00125-018-4658-3

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