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Arch Virol. 1985;86(1-2):63-83.

Thymidine kinase-negative bovine herpesvirus type 1 mutant is stable and highly attenuated in calves.


Calves were vaccinated intranasally (IN) or intravenously (IV) with a thymidine kinase-negative (tk-) BHV-1 mutant. Vaccinated calves developed neutralizing antibodies but did not show clinical signs of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR). Vaccination also prevented clinical signs of IBR disease following IN challenge exposure of the calves to parental Los Angeles (LA) and USDA Cooper strains of tk+ BHV-1. Nasal swabs were collected for 10 days after the vaccination and the challenge exposures to monitor BHV-1 multiplication. At both 91 and 121 days post vaccination (PV), calves were also stressed for 5 days with dexamethasone (DEX) to induce reactivation of BHV-1 and nasal swabs were obtained. tk- BHV-1 multiplied in the nasal mucosa of IN vaccinated calves and was also recovered after DEX treatment. Likewise, tk- BHV-1 was isolated from the buffy coat fraction of IV vaccinated calves, but not from nasal swabs. tk- BHV-1 vaccination reduced the multiplication of tk+ BHV-1 in the nasal mucosa, but did not completely prevent development of a persistent infection by the challenge virus. The phenotypes of viruses isolated from the nasal swabs and buffy coats were analyzed by enzyme assays of extracts from virus-infected cells and by plaque autoradiography. These assays showed that tk- BHV-1 can persist for at least 3 months in vaccinated calves and may also be transmitted from vaccinated to control calves without reverting in vivo to tk+. The results demonstrate that the tk- BHV mutant is attenuated and efficacious as a vaccine.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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