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Euro Surveill. 2018 Jun;23(25). doi: 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.25.1700337.

The potential value of crowdsourced surveillance systems in supplementing sentinel influenza networks: the case of France.

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Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Institut Pierre Louis d'Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique (IPLESP), Paris, France.
AP-HP, Service de Médecine Interne, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne Billancourt, France.
UFR des sciences de la santé Simone-Veil, Université Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Versailles, France.
Department of infectious diseases, Public Health France, Saint-Maurice, France.


IntroductionParticipatory surveillance systems provide rich crowdsourced data, profiling individuals and their health status at a given time. We explored the usefulness of data from, a participatory surveillance system, to estimate influenza-related illness incidence in France. Methods: is an online cohort since 2012 averaging ca. 5,000 weekly participants reporting signs/symptoms suggestive of influenza. has flexible criteria to define influenza-related illness. Different case definitions based on reported signs/symptoms and inclusions of criteria accounting for individuals' reporting and participation were used to produce influenza-related illness incidence estimates, which were compared to those from sentinel networks. We focused on the 2012/13 and 2013/14 seasons when two sentinel networks, monitoring influenza-like-illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) existed in France. Results: incidence estimates agreed well with official temporal trends, with a higher accuracy for ARI than ILI. The influenza epidemic peak was often anticipated by one week, despite irregular participation of individuals. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control ILI definition, commonly used by participatory surveillance in Europe, performed better in tracking ARI than ILI when applied to data. Conclusion: Evaluation of the epidemic intensity from crowdsourced data requires epidemic and intensity threshold estimations from several consecutive seasons. The study provides a standardised analytical framework for crowdsourced surveillance showing high sensitivity in detecting influenza-related changes in the population. It contributes to improve the comparability of epidemics across seasons and with sentinel systems. In France, may supplement the ILI sentinel network after ARI surveillance discontinuation in 2014.


Internet; cohort; crowdsourced data; incidence; influenza; surveillance

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