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Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 18;68(3):393-401. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy515.

Short-course High-dose Liposomal Amphotericin B for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial.

Author information

Botswana-University of Pennsylvania Partnership, Gaborone.
Division of Infectious Diseases, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Department of Clinical Research, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
University of Botswana, Gaborone.
National Institute of Medical Research, Mwanza, Tanzania.
Department of International Public Health, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom.
Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics and Therapeutics, Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom.
Centre for Global Health, Institute for Infection and Immunity, St George's University of London, United Kingdom.



We performed a phase 2 noninferiority trial examining the early fungicidal activity (EFA) of 3 short-course, high-dose liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) regimens for cryptococcal meningitis (CM) in Tanzania and Botswana.


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults with CM were randomized to (i) L-AmB 10 mg/kg on day 1 (single dose); (ii) L-AmB 10 mg/kg on day 1 and 5 mg/kg on day 3 (2 doses); (iii) L-AmB 10 mg/kg on day 1 and 5 mg/kg on days 3 and 7 (3 doses); or (iv) L-AmB 3 mg/kg/day for 14 days (control). All patients also received oral fluconazole 1200 mg/day for 14 days. Primary endpoint was mean rate of clearance of cerebrospinal fluid cryptococcal infection (EFA). Noninferiority was defined as an upper limit of the 2-sided 95% confidence interval (CI) of difference in EFA between intervention and control <0.2 log10 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL/day.


Eighty participants were enrolled. EFA for daily L-AmB was -0.41 log10 CFU/mL/day (standard deviation, 0.11; n = 17). Difference in mean EFA from control was -0.11 (95% CI, -.29 to .07) log10 CFU/mL/day faster with single dose (n = 16); -0.05 (95% CI, -.20 to .10) log10 CFU/mL/day faster with 2 doses (n = 18); and -0.13 (95% CI, -.35 to .09) log10 CFU/mL/day faster with 3 doses (n = 18). EFA in all short-course arms was noninferior to control. Ten-week mortality was 29% (n = 23) with no statistical difference between arms. All arms were well tolerated.


Single-dose 10 mg/kg L-AmB was well tolerated and led to noninferior EFA compared to 14 days of 3 mg/kg/day L-AmB in HIV-associated CM. Induction based on a single 10 mg/kg L-AmB dose is being taken forward to a phase 3 clinical endpoint trial.

Clinical Trials Registration:

ISRCTN 10248064.

[Available on 2019-06-26]

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