Send to

Choose Destination
J Fungi (Basel). 2018 Jun 25;4(3). pii: E76. doi: 10.3390/jof4030076.

Estimated Burden of Serious Fungal Diseases in Serbia.

Author information

National Reference Laboratory for Medical Mycology, Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Dr Subotića Street 1, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia.
The National Aspergillosis Centre, University Hospital of South Manchester, The University of Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M13 9PL, UK.


For the first time, we aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections or diseases (SFD) and highlight national epidemiological features in Serbia. Data on population and underlining conditions were extracted from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, World Bank, the Institute of Public Health of Serbia, the World Health Organization, National reference laboratory for medical mycology, the national registries of Serbian professional societies, and relevant publications. The population structure/inhabitants in 2016 (not including the autonomous region Kosovo & Metohija) was 7,058,322; with 6,041,743 adults (85.6%). The populations at risk (total cases per year) were: HIV infected 2441; acute myeloid leukemia 212; stem cell transplantation 151; solid organ transplants 59; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 250,302; adult asthmatics 311,806; adult cystic fibrosis 65; pulmonary tuberculosis 898; lung cancer 7260; intensive care unit admissions 19,821; and renal support 520. Annual fungal disease cases estimated are: candidemia 518; invasive aspergillosis 619; Candida peritonitis 187; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia 62; cryptococcosis 5; mucormycosis or fusariosis 23; severe asthma with fungal sensitization 10,393; allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 9094; chronic pulmonary aspergillosis 448, recurrent Candida vaginitis 135,303; oral candidiasis 208,489; esophageal candidiasis 173, fungal keratitis 70; tinea capitis 300; and onychomycosis 342,721. We expect that 156,825 people suffer from serious SFD each year (2221/100,000), and 409 dies annually. Additionally, the prevalence of superficial infections exceeds 1,008,995 cases (14,295/100,000). The first Rhinosporidium outbreak in Europe was associated with Serbian Silver Lake. The plant pathogen Fusarium seems to be emerging in Serbian pediatric haematooncology settings. Candida auris and endemic mycoses have not been observed to date. These general estimates provide a primer for further efforts to study fungal epidemiology in Serbia.


Serbia; epidemiology; serious fungal infections or diseases

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI) Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center