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Psychiatry Res. 2018 Sep;267:243-248. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.056. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Season of birth: A predictor of ADHD symptoms in early midlife.

Author information

1
Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 215 Lexington Ave., 15th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA.
2
Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 215 Lexington Ave., 15th Floor, New York, NY 10016, USA. Electronic address: judith.brook@nyumc.org.
3
Department of Behavioral Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-9983, USA.
4
Robert Stempel College of Public Health & Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

In this longitudinal study, we applied linear regression analyses to examine season of birth as related to symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in early midlife.

METHOD:

We gathered longitudinal data on a prospective cohort of community-dwelling men and women (N = 548) followed from adolescence to early midlife.

FINDINGS:

The findings indicate that, as compared with participants who were born in the summer, those who were born in the spring (Beta = 0.34; t-statistic = 3.59; p < 0.001) had significantly more ADHD symptoms. In addition, exposure to maternal cigarette smoking in adolescence significantly intensified (p < 0.01) the association between season of birth and ADHD symptoms in early midlife.

CONCLUSION:

These findings suggest that exposure to greater maternal maladaptive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking, may result in a greater vulnerability to other environmental risk factors, such as season of birth.

PMID:
29940455
PMCID:
PMC6131025
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.056
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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